Songjilu555’s Weblog

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Filed under: Uncategorized — songjilu555 @ 5:30 pm


We all expect our students to come away from our classes knowing some of the facts; but more importantly we want our students to come away knowing how to think critically. Less clear is how to teach the process, perhaps because few of us learned it explicitly , perhaps because for those of us who make it to the level of teacher, critical thinking was in some sense intuitive and automatic. This is not the case for the majority of students.

The good news is that because the scientific method is a formalization of critical thinking, it can be used as a simple model that removes critical thinking from the realm of the intuitive and puts it at the center of a straightforward, easily implemented, teaching strategy. I describe here the techniques I use to help students practice their thinking skills. These techniques are simply an expansion of the Evidence and Antibodies Sidelight in Gilbert’s Developmental Biology (2000, Sinauer Associates); that is, I harp on correlation, necessity, and sufficiency, and the kinds of experiments required to gather each type of evidence. In my own class, an upper division Developmental Biology lecture class, I use these techniques, which include both verbal and written reinforcement, to encourage students to evaluate claims about cause and effect, that is, to distinguish between correlation and causation; however, I believe that with very slight modifications, these tricks can be applied in a much greater array of situations.



This is a poster about how I tweak my Developmental Biology lectures so that in addition to learning facts, concepts, and certain key experiments, the students learn the principles of the scientific method, and go away able to apply the thought process in other contexts. Because the scientific method is just a formalization of critical thinking, that means that the students become critical thinkers. And that is what I most want to teach.

The basic idea:
Explicitly discussing the logic and the thought processes that inform experimental methods works better than hoping students will “get it” if they hear enough experiments described.

How I do it:
I devote three lecture periods to explicit discussions of observations, loss of function and gain of function experiments, and controls. This introduces the first principles and the vocabulary of experimental biology. Thereafter, every piece of information can be, and frequently is, discussed with reference to those principles. Every one of those discussions, the final project, and all the tests, reinforce the same ideas.

What the students get out of it:
1. They understand where information comes from.
2. They know where to start when you ask them to think about something.
3. They understand experiments, both classical and modern.
4. They can read the primary literature and comprehend much more, more quickly.
5. They can judge the validity of conclusions.
6. Every student seems to get it, even those who are not stellar.
7. As their confidence grows, they become more active participants in class.
8. They are AWARE that they are thinking well, and most find that very exciting.


YES. I am impressed over an over again by the improvement in my students’ ability to UNDERSTAND the primary literature, to ASSESS the validity of claims, and to THINK critically about how to answer questions.


The majority of students respond very positively; others are neutral. I have not encountered anyone who found it a negative experience. On their mid semester self evaluations, students wrote the following statements in response to the question “Where would you say you have shown the most change for the better?”

“I believe that I am gaining a real understanding of how to go about asking questions…The experimental design techniques and problem solving approaches have really strengthened my critical thinking skills”

“It’s becoming easier to read complicated journal articles with understanding”

“I … like the experiment section of the test because I can apply my knowledge.”

“The research proposal was really difficult for me…but that’s good, it means it’s a challenge.”

” critical thinking has expanded… experimental thinking has made science in general more clear for me. I feel less overwhelmed by all the research and knowledge by understanding how to break it down into manageable questions.”

I have also received the following spontaneous comments:

“I am studying pathogenic E. coli for one of my other classes and am reading this book on the microbes. I came across this paragraph, part of which I have to share with you!! It talks about how… ‘the intimin of E. coli was shown to be NECESSARY BUT NOT SUFFICIENT to induce lesions.’ I just thought it was so cool that I am reading this highly scientific book and can make sense of concepts that would have been so foreign to me not all that long ago!!”

One student actually expressed regret that the fourth exam was the last…

Does it take much work to incorporate this?
NO. Especially given the pay off.

Advance preparation: Some work the first two years, then none.
It took about 15 minutes to add the blurb to the syllabus. I devote 1 Ð 2 lectures in the first or second week of the class to a careful examination of the experiments described on page 25. During those lectures we talk about necessity and sufficiency, and why you need both kinds of evidence, and I introduce the short hand SHOW IT BLOCK IT MOVE IT. Another lecture, further into the semester, is devoted to controls. Now that those lectures are written, my preparation is minimal.

During lecture: Less work than before.
Like everybody, I was already talking about experiments in lecture; this is merely a modification in how I talk about experiments. Having the SHOW IT BLOCK IT MOVE IT vocabulary in fact saves time. What used to take 10 minutes to describe now takes about 5 minutes: the students understand the whole picture much more quickly since they already understand what experiments can, and can not, tell you.

Exams: Less prep work, more grading work
Writing exams takes half the time. 50% of every exam is prepared simply by finding an appropriate observation and describing it. Having done this for three years, I now have a collection of good observations so there is even less work. Grading exams does take longer. I strongly encourage students to write very succinctly, but this is, admittedly, the one downside of this approach.

Anything else?
This turns out to be the best strategy I’ve ever found when asked a question that I can not answer. My old approach was to be completely honest about my ignorance, say “what a good question”, and “where do you think you could find the answer to that ?” Now, I am completely honest about my ignorance, then I turn the question into a class-wide discussion about how to design experiments to answer the question. It turns a potentially useless moment into an opportunity for the students to practice thinking.

What I do DURING LECTURE and how it is different from what I used to do?

I. In the syllabus is a blurb warning the students that they will be asked to think about the experimental basis of knowledge. I read this out loud during the first class. Difference: it takes an extra two minutes.

II. Sometime during the first two weeks of class, I devote two classes to a detailed discussion of the experiments described on page 25.
I begin with the life cycle of Dictyostelium discoideum. Difference: none.
Next we talk about the observations and the hypotheses they engendered. Difference: time is devoted to an explicit discussion about what observations and hypotheses are, and how they differ from experiments and facts.
Then we cover how antibodies work and how they are used. Difference: they learn about this technique earlier in the semester.
Then we discuss correlations. We give the nickname “SHOW IT” to the category of experiment that shows correlations. Difference: Again, time is devoted to an explicit discussion of correlative evidence. I do not have to hope that they know or will pick up the difference between correlation and causation.
Next we discuss loss of function evidence. We give the nickname “BLOCK IT” to that category of experiment. We talk about how a block it experiment shows necessity.
To introduce the last kind of evidence, we talk about the limitations of block it experiments, and we discuss how something can be necessary but not sufficient.
Next is gain of function evidence. We use “MOVE IT” as our nickname for that category of experiment. We talk about how a move it experiment shows sufficiency. We also talk about how something can be sufficient but not necessary.
Finally, I reiterate, and the class discusses, how all three types of evidence are needed to show cause and effect.

III. After that, any experiment that comes up in class is immediately put into a category that the students already understand. Difference:
It saves a huge amount of class time.
It provides instant context for any experiment that comes up.
it gives the students examples of, and practice at, critical thinking.
The students don’t just hear experiments, they UNDERSTAND THEM and how the results fit into the big picture.

IV. I also provide the students with an empty “tool box”. Every time a technique is mentioned in class, we pull out the toolbox and write notes about the technique in the appropriate box. Difference: by the end of the semester, the students have been introduced to, and thought about how to use,, an impressive number of techniques, and they UNDERSTAND the power and the limitations of those techniques. On a very practical level, they end up with a list of techniques and controls they can consult in the future.

V. Toward the middle of the semester, I devote an entire lecture to controls, including why you do them and how you do them. From then on, when we talk about a technique, we also talk about the appropriate controls, and we add them to the tool box. Difference: students actually UNDERSTAND controls.

VI. Finally, EVERY TEST has a gradually growing question, always worth 50%, that asks the students to make a hypothesis about an unfamiliar observation then design experiments to test the hypothesis:
TEST 1 Ð Asks for the hypothesis and three experiments
TEST 2 Ð Asks for the hypothesis and three experiments
+ consistent & inconsistent results for all three experiments
TEST 3 – Asks for the hypothesis and three experiments
+ consistent & inconsistent results for all three experiments
+ controls
TEST 4 – Asks for the hypothesis and three experiments
+ consistent & inconsistent results for all three experiments
+ controls

+ alternative hypotheses

Because the question grows, and because the early tests count for a smaller percentage of the final grade, the students quickly recover from their anxiety about a “new kind of exam”, and actually begin to enjoy (?!) solving the puzzle. Difference: THE STUDENTS PRACTICE THEIR CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS in a way that is, for the students, fun and memorable (because of the constant reinforcement) and for me, simple and reasonable easy to evaluate.
The Course
Developmental Biology, once known as embryology, is the study of how organisms and the cells that comprise them change and grow through the life cycle. For most of the organisms we will study, that cycle comprises the development of the organism from gametes to adults that produce more gametes, (exceptions to this cycle make a marvelous study). In addition to being a fascinating and aesthetically pleasing subject, modern Developmental Biology represents a synthesis of many of the subjects you have already studied, including Cell Biology, Genetics, Evolution, and even a little tiny bit of Physics. Thus you will be reviewing, reinforcing, and remixing many of the concepts you have already learned in other classes. I believe that you will find development to be an exciting context in which to think about cell behaviors, biochemical reactions, and forces.

One of the great joys of being a scientist is that your view of the world is constantly changing. Sometimes those changes are quite profound – remember learning that objects were made of molecules ? – others are more subtle. One of my goals for this course is to offer you a new way of seeing living things; that is, I hope that you will begin to appreciate the incredible but true stories behind the ability of mighty oaks to grow from tiny acorns.

Another important component of this course will be the emphasis on putting information in the context of the scientific method. In other words, we will structure our study with reference to the process of making observations, followed by formulating hypotheses, then testing of those hypotheses, analyzing the results of the experiments, and forming both conclusions and new questions based on those results. In fact, all of the tests will have one question in common: there will be an observation, and you will be asked to make a hypothesis, describe experiments to test that hypothesis, make predictions about the results of the experiment, and discuss the results. We will also use this framework as a guide to interpreting experiments and understanding how those experiments contribute to our current understanding about how organisms develop.

Developmental biologists are still seeking answers to questions first asked by embryologists at the turn of the century. To understand the extraordinary, not to mention currently trendy revolution that is going on in this field, you must first see what the original embryologists saw when they watched organisms develop. In other words, you must watch organisms develop. Thus we will spend time studying the observations that others have made, and making many of our own. The rest of our time will be devoted to understanding how things happen – that is, we will study the mechanisms underlying what we observe, at least, the ones we think we understand.


U.S. Education System

Filed under: Uncategorized — songjilu555 @ 5:19 pm

Types of Programs

Undergraduate programs (Bachelor degree) :
This is the first level of post-secondary education that begins after 12 years of primary and secondary schooling. It includes at least 4 years of education and earns a bachelor degree (Most Indian graduation courses are of 3 years duration). There are also two-year programs which earn an Associate degree. A student who has an associate degree has to study further for a minimum of 2 years to earn a bachelor degree.

Graduate Programs (Master & Doctorate degree) :
This is the same as post-graduate education in India. It usually involves one year or more of education depending on the subject or course, and earns a master or doctoral degree like MBA, MS or PhD. Admission to a graduate program usually requires a minimum of 16 years of formal education. That is, 12 years of primary and secondary schooling and further 4 years of college education.


Types of Institutions

There is no central ministry of education in the U.S. and each institution can determine its own programs and admission standards. There are private as well as state funded colleges.

Universities are academic institutions that include one or more undergraduate colleges, as well as any number of graduate and professional schools, i.e. schools offering study for a single profession such as law.

Four year colleges are undergraduate institutions offering academic programs leading to a bachelor degree. Community colleges or junior colleges are undergraduate institutions offering upto two years of academic instruction beyond secondary school at a relatively low cost. These offer certificate programs that last for a few months to a year as well as associate degrees.

Institutes of technology or polytechnic institutes offer specialized programs in sciences and engineering, in addition to basic sciences, humanities and the social sciences, at both the graduate and undergraduate levels.



Accreditation is a process by which universities and their programs are recognized for maintaining a certain level of performance and quality. Accreditation is usually done by non-governmental agencies called accreditation bodies. There are two types of accreditation : regional & professional.

Regional bodies ascertain whether colleges and universities as a whole meet certain standards of educational quality.

In addition, certain professional accrediting bodies evaluate the quality of education in specific fields like Business, Law etc.

Importance of Accreditation :

Ensures that universities meet minimum standards.

Only national and international form of evaluation for US universities.

Increases the recognition of degree by employers and schools.

Helps in case the student wishes a transfer to another university.

To check out the list of accredited US universities, go to

NOTE : Government of India recognizes only accredited U.S. universities

It is advisable to apply to only accredited universities.



US universities offer two main semester intakes:

Fall Semester (September/October):
This is the main intake and almost all programs are offered at this times. More financial aid is also available for this semester and as funds are allocated for the entire year during this time.

Spring Semester (January/February):
This is the mid-year intake. There is limited financial assistance available for this semester as most universities allocate funds to projects in the Fall semester.

Some universities also have a Summer intake around July.


Education system

Filed under: Uncategorized — songjilu555 @ 5:16 pm

Adult education
Lifelong, or adult, education has become widespread in many countries.[citation needed] However, education is still seen by many as something aimed at children, and adult education is often branded as adult learning or lifelong learning. Adult education takes on many forms, from formal class-based learning to self-directed learning.

Lending libraries provide inexpensive informal access to books and other self-instructional materials. The rise in computer ownership and internet access has given both adults and children greater access to both formal and informal education. In Scandinavia a unique[citation needed] approach to learning termed folkbildning has long been recognised as contributing to adult education through the use of learning circles. Mode of Education. 1-formal education, 2-informal education , 3-Non formal education.

Formal Education:- the hierarchically structured, chronologically graded education system, running from primary school through the university and including, in addition to general academic studies, a variety of specialized programs and institutions for full time technical and professional training.

Informal Education:- The truly lifelong process whereby every individual acquires attitude, values, skills and knowledge form daily experience and the educative influences and resources in his or her environment from family and neighbors, from work and play, from the market place the library and the mass media.

Non-Formal Education

any organized educational activity outside the established formal system- whether operating separately or as an important feature of some broader activity that is intended to serve identifiable learning clienteles and learning objectives.

Alternative education
Main article: Alternative education
Alternative education, also known as non-traditional education or educational alternative, is a broad term which may be used to refer to all forms of education outside of traditional education (for all age groups and levels of education). This may include both forms of education designed for students with special needs (ranging from teenage pregnancy to intellectual disability) and forms of education designed for a general audience which employ alternative educational philosophies and/or methods.

Alternatives of the latter type are often the result of education reform and are rooted in various philosophies that are commonly fundamentally different from those of traditional compulsory education. While some have strong political, scholarly, or philosophical orientations, others are more informal associations of teachers and students dissatisfied with certain aspects of traditional education[citation needed]. These alternatives, which include charter schools, alternative schools, independent schools, and home-based learning vary widely, but often emphasize the value of small class size, close relationships between students and teachers, and a sense of community[citation needed].

In certain places, especially in the United States, the term alternative may largely refer to forms of education catering to “at risk” students, as it is, for example, in this definition drafted by the Massachusetts Department of Education. [1]

Education curriculum
Main articles: Curriculum and List of academic disciplines
An academic discipline is a branch of knowledge which is formally taught, either at the university, or via some other such method. Functionally, disciplines are usually defined and recognized by the academic journals in which research is published, and by the learned societies to which their practitioners belong.[citation needed] Students say school is 80% psychological, 20% physical effort.[citation needed]

Each discipline usually has several sub-disciplines or branches, and distinguishing poems are often both arbitrary and lazy. Examples of inclusive areas of academic disciplines include the natural sciences, mathematics, computer science, social sciences, humanities and applied sciences.[2]

Education process

Learning modalities
There has been a great deal of work on learning styles over the last two decades. Dunn and Dunn[3] focused on identifying relevant stimuli that may influence learning and manipulating the school environment, at about the same time as Joseph Renzulli[4] recommended varying teaching strategies. Howard Gardner[5] identified individual talents or aptitudes in his Multiple Intelligences theories. Based on the works of Jung, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and Keirsey Temperament Sorter[6] focused on understanding how people’s personality affects the way they interact personally, and how this affects the way individuals respond to each other within the learning environment. The work of David Kolb and Anthony Gregorc’s Type Delineator[7] follows a similar but more simplified approach.

It is currently fashionable to divide education into different learning “modes”. The learning modalities[8] are probably the most common:[9]

Kinesthetic: learning based on hands-on work and engaging in activities.
Visual: learning based on observation and seeing what is being learned.
Auditory: learning based on listening to instructions/information.
It is claimed that, depending on their preferred learning modality, different teaching techniques have different levels of effectiveness.[10] A consequence of this theory is that effective teaching should present a variety of teaching methods which cover all three learning modalities so that different students have equal opportunities to learn in a way that is effective for them.[11]

Teachers need the ability to understand a subject well enough to convey its essence to a new generation of students.[citation needed] The goal is to establish a sound knowledge base on which students will be able to build as they are exposed to different life experiences.[citation needed] The passing of knowledge from generation to generation allows students to grow into useful members of society.[citation needed] Good teachers can translate information, good judgment, experience and wisdom into relevant knowledge that a student can understand and retain.[citation needed] As a profession, teaching has very high levels of Work-Related Stress (WRS)[12] which are listed as amongst the highest of any profession in some countries, such as the United Kingdom. The degree of this problem is becoming increasingly recognized and support systems are put into place.[13]

Education technology
Main article: Educational technology
Technology is an increasingly influential factor in education. Computers and mobile phones are being widely used in developed countries both to complement established education practices and develop new ways of learning such as online education (a type of distance education). This gives students the opportunity to choose what they are interested in learning. The proliferation of computers also means the increase of programming and blogging. Technology offers powerful learning tools that demand new skills and understandings of students, including Multimedia, and provides new ways to engage students, such as Virtual learning environments. Technology is being used more not only in administrative duties in education but also in the instruction of students. The use of technologies such as PowerPoint and interactive whiteboard is capturing the attention of students in the classroom. Technology is also being used in the assessment of students. One example is the Audience Response System (ARS), which allows immediate feedback tests and classroom discussions.

Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are a “diverse set of tools and resources used to communicate, create, disseminate, store, and manage information.”[14] These technologies include computers, the Internet, broadcasting technologies (radio and television), and telephony. There is increasing interest in how computers and the Internet can improve education at all levels, in both formal and non-formal settings.[15] Older ICT technologies, such as radio and television, have for over forty years been used for open and distance learning, although print remains the cheapest, most accessible and therefore most dominant delivery mechanism in both developed and developing countries.[16]

The use of computers and the Internet is still in its infancy in developing countries, if these are used at all, due to limited infrastructure and the attendant high costs of access. Usually, various technologies are used in combination rather than as the sole delivery mechanism. For example, the Kothmale Community Radio Internet uses both radio broadcasts and computer and Internet technologies to facilitate the sharing of information and provide educational opportunities in a rural community in Sri Lanka.[17] The Open University of the United Kingdom (UKOU), established in 1969 as the first educational institution in the world wholly dedicated to open and distance learning, still relies heavily on print-based materials supplemented by radio, television and, in recent years, online programming.[18] Similarly, the Indira Gandhi National Open University in India combines the use of print, recorded audio and video, broadcast radio and television, and audio conferencing technologies.[19]

The term “computer-assisted learning” (CAL) has been increasingly used to describe the use of technology in teaching.


Art education article

Filed under: Uncategorized — songjilu555 @ 5:08 pm

Theory and Practice

There is often a split between the theories of art education and between the actual practice of art education. There are many reasons to embrace theory and there are good reasons to be wary of theory. Theory that claims to have identified the best and only way of currently structuring art education is not in sync with postmodern times in which a variety of approaches and positions can be seen as equally valid, at least as starting points. Planning a curriculum based on theoretical positions, even interesting, up-to-date theories, can be dry and lifeless. “Authoring” art projects is an art form and needs to begin in an aesthetic, not only an intellectual impulse. Without the aesthetic impulse, that combines thinking, perceiving, and making in fresh ways, curriculum is a mere recitation of what has been, rather than an exploration of what can be.

Yet, theory can spark an intellectual and aesthetic impulse. Such thinking can transform and enliven an art education curriculum. It can encourage incorporating contemporary thinking about art and culture into the everyday life of the classroom. It can draw attention to important, but hitherto for, unnoticed aspects of the content of the curriculum. It can challenge us to step back from immersion in the beauty and complexity of the visual and material world to re-think why we do what we do.

The articles in this section are by teachers, artists, and professors whose ideas have contributed to the Contemporary Community Curriculum Initiative. Our goal is to present articles that will stimulate teachers to look through different eyes at their K-12 (and college) art rooms. It is by these shifts of perception – causing sometimes a slight and subtle change of emphasis or at other times a complete make-over of some aspect of the curriculum – that teachers continue to re-invent the practice, outcomes, and theory of art education in our schools.



Filed under: Uncategorized — songjilu555 @ 4:43 pm

The foreign education sector in China is split in two – students studying abroad and foreign education service providers establishing a presence in Shanghai. The type of students interested in Australia includes those who desire pure language study and those who wish to study university degrees right through to post-graduate/MBA studies etc.

As the cost of overseas study remains high, pursuing qualifications through foreign accredited institutions in China has become more practical and more popular. Course delivery can take two forms. One is the foreign school catering exclusively to expatriates, which can be wholly foreign owned and the investor need not be an education entity. The other is a co-operative arrangement or twinning with a Chinese institution where local students are the target markets. These schools are encouraged to provide vocational education. Foreign investors must have a Chinese partner who can lodge an application with the local education authorities for approval.


Education in China

Filed under: Uncategorized — songjilu555 @ 4:35 pm

1.English Education in Mainland China.

Aftre reading few articles in Sohu regarding the primary and secondary school education system in mainland China. There are few points that deserve to address to make the education system better. We welcome more inputs and discuss what would be the direction that may best fit the system and to the best interest to students/Chinese.

Scope could be (not the least):
1) the role of teachers/educators
2) the role of appropriate authority
3) education funding
4) teaching style
5) teaching skills
6) international schools

The topic indicates English Education; Sohu readers should not limit inputs to English if he/she has a better idea.
Through this discussion, he/she can not only use this opportunity to improve the writing and reading English, he/she can also contribute certain values to Chinese as a whole.

2.Education System in China Today

Education System in China Today

Education in China today has been developing rapidly. Most children start school by the age of six. They spend five or six years in primary school and three years in junior middle school, which are compulsory education.

After that, some can attend professional school for two to three years before work. Some attend senior middle school for three years. Students have to pass a series of examinations before entering a college or university. The college or university life lasts two to four years. Now part of the cost is provided by with their families, although students can get the support from the college. After they graduate, they can go and find jobs.

Though great changes have taken place in the fields of education in China, there is still much to be improved.

3.Schooling and Education

It is commonly believed in United States that school is where people go to get an education. Nevertheless, it has been said that today children interrupt their education to go to school. The distinction between schooling and education implied by this remark is important.

Education is much more open-ended and all-inclusive than schooling. Education knows no bounds. It can take place anywhere, whether in the shower or in the job, whether in a kitchen or on a tractor. It includes both the formal learning that takes place in schools and the whole universe of informal learning. The agents of education can range from a revered grandparent to the people debating politics on the radio, from a child to a distinguished scientist. Whereas schooling has a certain predictability, education quite often produces surprises. A chance conversation with a stranger may lead a person to discover how little is known of other religions. People are engaged in education from infancy on. Education, then, is a very broad, inclusive term. It is a lifelong process, a process that starts long before the start of school, and one that should be an integral part of one’s entire life.

Schooling, on the other hand, is a specific, formalized process, whose general pattern varies little from one setting to the next. Throughout a country, children arrive at school at approximately the same time, take assigned seats, are taught by an adult, use similar textbooks, do homework, take exams, and so on. The slices of reality that are to be learned, whether they are the alphabet or an understanding of the working of government, have usually been limited by the boundaries of the subject being taught. For example, high school students know that there not likely to find out in their classes the truth about political problems in their communities or what the newest filmmakers are experimenting with. There are definite conditions surrounding the formalized process of schooling.


About me February 10, 2008

Filed under: Uncategorized — songjilu555 @ 7:14 am

      My name is Matt,from China,
Chinese name is Songjilu,
my hometown is hebei in the China ,
I am 20 years old,I like watching TV and playing computer and reading books.
My favourite fruit is apple
my favourite animal is dogs
I am very cool and clever! hoho

I have a happy family.
There are three people in my family.
They are my mother ,my father and I.My mother is banker,she is a beautiful women.
i love her.

last year i came Malasiya,Malasiya is very beautiful country.
I love it
some people ask me :why came malaxaya?
i don’t kown,maybe this is my life,So i must learn to get well with the enviroment…

    I want to become a good teacher…
Learn more kownlegde…
Thank you for sharing your time with me and let me do a self-introduction…
Thank you